Read e-book online A Field Guide to Pacific States Wildflowers: Washington, PDF

By Theodore F. Niehaus

ISBN-10: 0395910951

ISBN-13: 9780395910955

Here are descriptions and illustrations of 1,492 species from seventy seven households - nearly all the wildflowers came across from British Columbia to Baja California, from the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean. Grouped by means of colour, every one species description comprises box marks, measurement, habitat, diversity, flowering season, and customary and clinical names.

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Extra resources for A Field Guide to Pacific States Wildflowers: Washington, Oregon, California and adjacent areas (Peterson Field Guide)

Example text

Notoginseng on two-stage carcinogenesis of mouse skin tumor under pre-treatment and post-treatment, using dimethylbenz- [a]anthracene (DMBA) as an initiator and TPA as a promoter, were investigated. The rate (%) of papilloma-bearing mice (Fig. 3-A) and the average number of papillomas per mouse (Fig. 3-B) of treated group were compared with those of the positive control group. In the positive control group, 80% of mice bore papillomas at 8 weeks of promotion and 100% of mice bore papillomas at 10 weeks of promotion, and more than 10 papillomas were formed per mouse atter 20 weeks of promotion.

O. ~"" . oleanolic acid 3-O-8]ucuronide(30) ,,,HO-,----rH OH , '.. . . momordin Ic (32) [ Acylated Olean-12-ene 3-O-Monodesmoside I Aesculus hippocastanum, A. 0--0 H ~',,O~C-OH ~ = ~20H ~ 3 Polygala senega var. Iatifolia (senegasaponins,Z - s e n e g ~ ,,,,, HO1. ~. ~~I J L~I . L - - v J OH2OH O0 CH20H OO 0 H6~DH FILl OH R escin Ia (43)" R=CH2OH escin IIa (44): R=H E,Z-senegin II (45) HO 0~ HO-~'rH OH 00 [H O I H ]"mlr H OHHO OH OH Chart 5 As our continuing studies to find the saponin constituents with inhibitory activity of 25 glucose absorption, we have found the saponin fractions of several medicinal foodstuffs and natural medicines to show the inhibitory activity on the increase of serum glucose levels in glucose-loaded rats(Table 2).

Notoginseng, and especially, ginsenoside-Rb 1, -Rb2, -Rd, -Re and -Rgl have been isolated as major neutral saponins. Furthermore, acetylene derivatives, panaxytriol and panaxynol have been also isolated from this plant. Therefore, these saponins and acetylenes were assayed on EBV-EA activation, and these results are shown in Table 2. Table 2. 0 (>80) Sample Concentration(mol ratio, compound/TPA) lx 103 lx 103 5x 10 lx 10 1 panaxytriol .... c (0) .... c (0) .... 9 (>80) panaxynol .... c (0) ....

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A Field Guide to Pacific States Wildflowers: Washington, Oregon, California and adjacent areas (Peterson Field Guide) by Theodore F. Niehaus


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