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By Willis, H. Lee; Schrieber, Randall R

ISBN-10: 1439804036

ISBN-13: 9781439804032

ISBN-10: 1439896917

ISBN-13: 9781439896914

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As mentioned above, the guiding rules for primary distribution planning and design at most utilities were developed in the 1930s, and last seriously re-examined and revised in the late 1960s. Additionally, they are applied in a “cookie cutter” manner, using rules-of-thumb, informal guidelines for the larger issues of layout, switch planning (along with copious formal guidelines about the details), and rote rules for overall design. In a majority of cases, these rules are often too conservative, not allowing the full use of distribution as a resource.

In this new paradigm, traditional values such as good customer service, high utilization of physical assets, and efficient operation are all-important priorities, because they contribute to that end. It is interesting that there seems to be more focus on these “virtues” of good utility operation under deregulation than there was under a traditionally regulated operation. Certainly utilization rates are higher, attention paid to reliability is greater than ever, and more effort is being directed at improving efficiency than ever before.

Generally, systems laid out only with N-1 methods have configurations, which will, providing feasible contingency capability, offer far less operating flexibility than really necessary for reliable operation. Load Forecast Sensitivity A system that is under a good deal of stress, either because it has a system layout that is less than ideal for its load levels, or because equipment is being operated at high utilization rates, is particularly sensitive to errors in the load forecast used in its planning.

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Aging power delivery infrastructures by Willis, H. Lee; Schrieber, Randall R

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